Functions out of grunts and you may deep grunts developed by territorial boys and grunts developed by ladies of corkwing wrasse

Functions out of grunts and you may deep grunts developed by territorial boys and grunts developed by ladies of corkwing wrasse
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Table dos. For men, quantity of sounds analysed is provided as final number plus the list of music analysed for every individual during the mounts. For men, amount of nest sites equal the number of boys submitted, for ladies, it stands for what number of nests at which i observed her or him. Male voice attributes was averaged towards individual height just before calculating the brand new displayed data. Mean ± SD | Average is provided with on number of pulses per voice, period, pulse rate and prominent frequency

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Profile step three. Several heartbeat sounds developed by the latest corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you may corresponding spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt out-of a good territorial men corkwing wrasse. (b) Strong grunt from an excellent territorial male corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt from a woman corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram settings: fifty dB vibrant variety, Hamming window (increased sine-squared), 0.008 s screen size (female and male grunt), 0.08 s screen duration (men strong grunt)

Shape step three. Numerous pulse musical developed by this new corkwing wrasse. Wave form (top) and you will involved spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt out of a beneficial territorial men corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt out-of good territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt off a female corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram options: 50 dB dynamic assortment, Hamming screen (elevated sine-squared), 0.008 s screen length (female and male grunt), 0.08 s windows size (male strong grunt)

Because of the different structure of grunts and deep grunts, we only compared the sound properties statistically, which were the same in both types of grunt, i.e. dominant frequency and duration. The two male grunt types differ significantly from each other in both propertiespared to deep grunts, male grunts are of a shorter duration (t-test: t = 5.44, P < 0.001, CI = ?0.47–1.09). The dominant frequency is higher in male grunts than in male deep grunts (Mann Whitney U test: W = 0, N1 = 17, N2 = 11, P < 0.001). Table 2 presents all measured sound properties for comparison.

Compared to male grunts, female grunts had a significantly lower pulse-rate (t-test: t = -6.71, P < 0.0001, CI = -- -). Grunts of males and females had a similar dominant frequency (t-test: t = 1.38, P = 0.17, CI = -0.05- 0.26), duration (t-test: t = 0.47, P = 0.64, CI = -0.19- 0.26), and number of pulses (Mann Whitney U test: W = 302, N1 = 17, N2 = 35, P = 0.94).

Single-pulse musical

Your choice of demonstrably assignable presses led to the analysis off 102 men ticks regarding 31 video clips from 19 people and you may 66 ladies presses out-of 20 movies from the nests off fourteen people. The selection of clearly assignable plops triggered the study regarding 73 men plops of twenty eight videos out-of 18 video and you will 66 female plops regarding 21 videos in the nests away from fourteen men. Averaging men musical per private male contributed to a sample sized letter = 18 for presses, and you may letter = 17 for plops.

Clicks are sharp, single-pulse broadband sounds with their main energy in a frequency range of several hundred Hz, while the sound pressure level difference across the harmonics are small (Figure 4(a), Table 3). The dominant frequency of clicks was significantly higher in males than in females (Mann Whitney U test: W = 409, N1 = 35, N2 = 66, P = 0.04). However, there were some female clicks for which the dominant frequency was much higher than in most clicks (up to 7200 Hz). We did not see any technical reason to exclude these outliers from the analysis. Clicks did not differ between males and females in the sound pressure level difference between dominant frequency and its 5 th harmonic (t-test: tforty-eight.cuatro = 0.84, P = 0.40, CI = ?2.17–5.31).